“The archeological evidence that Neanderthals were 100% human, is just overwhelming. They made sophisticated spears, needles, and stone tools. Now, a bird will use a piece of straw to get a bug out of a tree. An ape or a monkey might use a stick to get ants out of an ant hill. An otter will use a rock to break open an oyster on its belly, but animals don’t make tools. Only humans do that.

They used make-up, made seashell jewelry, and painted art in caves. They hunted dolphins and seals. Humans are the only land creatures that do that. They dove for living sea mollusks. They used fire to cook food. They made glue and maybe ropes and nets. And they build homes from animal skins. Now, beavers will build dams. Ants will build high rises and hills. Birds will build nests. But animals don’t make homes from the skin of animals. Only humans do that.

They made flutes from bear femurs and headdresses from feathers. They cared for their sick and did surgery. We can tell that because there are Neanderthal bones that were clearly cut, operated on, and healed. They ceremonially buried their dead. They made and sailed boats. They possessed the hyoid bone in the voice box, which scientists say is almost identical to modern humans. They had the species-associated gene fox p2, and they interbred with modern humans. They had children with modern humans.

A few years ago, I was speaking in California and this man came up to me after I gave this lecture, something similar to it, and he said, ‘You’ve got to use me in your lecture in the future.’ I said, ‘Why is that?’ He said, ”Because I’ve had my DNA mapped and I am 3% Neanderthal.’ I said, ‘Really!’ He said, ‘Yeah. I’m from Lithuania.’ I’ve since learned that except for black Africans, all human beings are one to three percent Neanderthal. So, you’re part Neanderthal, most of you. So am I. And Dave was not primitive. He worked for Google in technical support, so I’m sure he’s a lot smarter than me.”

The lecture can be watched here.

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